Who invented the first antibiotic?

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Who invented the first antibiotic?

The first antibiotic was invented by Alessandro Fleming (for the record he was English), in 1928 in London, observing a colony of bacteria that was eradicated by a "strange mold". He did not realize at the time that he had made a sensational discovery for the development of medicine. Only ten years later, in fact, together with the doctor Florey and the chemist Chain, he transformed the "strange mold" into a drug that was injected on a patient for the first time on April 12, 1941.

Do you know who invented the first lipstick? The story of the most loved cosmetic

Today it is one of the most loved cosmetics by women along with mascara, but the red lipstick it has not always been "just" a cosmetic: its story starts from afar and sees it as the protagonist of taboos, symbol of perversion and immorality but also of power and emancipation. Red lipstick has not always been seen with the same eyes, it has changed shape and formulation and has gone from an object that identifies prostitutes in the Middle Ages to a symbol of female emancipation and anti-fascism during the 1900s. Today he is the protagonist of a love-hate of the female universe: there are those who cannot do without it and those who cannot use it. We tell you the story of red lipstick, from its birth in the Sumerian era until today.

If today we wear the bra it is all thanks to a woman (and the alphabet)

In November 1912 Mary Phelps Jacob officially gave the go-ahead to the bra prototype, completely changing the history of lingerie.

In the beginning it was the broken corsets, which lifted the breasts by squeezing them in the neckline in their desperate (for those who suffered it) definition of the hourglass waist. Then the history of the bra she took another course for an emergency from an impalpable and too much, too low-cut dress. It was Caresse Crosby, also known as Mary Phelps Jacob (and Polly Jacob, Polly Peabody, in short, a creative starting from the registry office), who was the first to invent the rudimentary engineering system that would have completely changed the history of fashion. The chronicles report 1912 as the date of this special moment: two handkerchiefs, some pink ribbon of pre-Baptist memory, needle, thread and ante litteram engineering inventiveness. Voila, the first bra had been made.

In 1914 the patent filed for Mary Phelps Jacob's backless bra would arrive, which had the advantage of separating the breasts without crushing them. But since the second half of the nineteenth century various models had been tested (including the wrap-around one-piece brassiere, which then evolved into a sports bra over the last twenty years of the 1900s, and from which the name of the bra in English, bra) that would slowly, inexorably, change the perception of comfort and feminine dressing. Distant traces of primordial bras can be found in ancient Greece, when women tied tight bands to the chest to prevent the breasts from dancing too much during sporting activities, and during the Roman Empire. These are the first historical evidence, but nothing prevents us from thinking, dreaming a little, that the bra has always existed in one way or another. The rest is a story of patents, crossbreeding and trade. From the winning idea on sheer of the dress by Caresse Crosby / Mary Phelps Jacob, who later sold the patent for her original bra, it would take almost another twenty years of in-depth studies because S.H. Camp and Company invented the bra cups depending on the heaviness of the breasts: the letters of the alphabet would have indicated the size of the breasts since then, while more and more attention was paid to the straps (wider and more resistant for the larger breasts) and to the hooks.

From those ribbons intertwined and held together with a little thread to the engineering research of recent years, which have led to a variety of models (with or without underwire, balconette bras, seamless, push-ups, bandeau bra strapless, in lace or technical material), years, technologies and social history have passed. Bra as a symbol of the choice of personal freedom: first with the possibility of putting it on by gradually getting rid of the corset that tightened the breath, then with the choice to burn it to indicate the revolt against the constraining and patriarchal system of torpedo bras of the 50s, to reaffirm their emancipation. Today the bra is worn for what it is: a garment that coordinates with the look on the basis of a personal taste inscribed in a circle of general indications.

Nude bra under the white shirts, classic black under the little black dress, bras smaller than the first that are poems of minimalism, colored bras exaggerated and embroidered, white bras that take their revenge as a well-kept secret under the layering of anti-cold sweaters and so choose. The elegance of the coordinated is still unbeatable: the lace or silk outfit has become a classic of special evenings, also fueled by increasingly diversified collections that, in addition to the slip + bra, offer slips, bed lingerie, matching home clothing, even delicious slippers. The bra remains the symbol of a femininity that is expressed both with its presence (visible or not), and with an absence that does not lose its political nuance: the online shopping site Privalia, in a recent survey on lingerie that involved women between 20 and 45 years old, registered a good 7% of Italians who choose the “no bra” trend, without bra. And the hashtags #nobra and #nobranoproblem on Instagram photograph - literally - an increasingly present trend, daily or occasional, which prefers to leave the breast to itself without squeezing it. Faced with the liberating gesture of each end of the day, when the cage of laces and bra straps is released, it is easy to understand why the #nobra movement is so successful. At the same time, for personal pleasure, sleeping in a bra still has its admirers, especially among girls with large breasts.

But the possibility of choosing continues undaunted to dictate the figures for lingerie: 73% said they have at least 7 bras in their drawer, depending on the occasions and needs. There are also bra for specific moments in life, such as the nursing bra (born for the needs of new mothers in the 60s), and the new technologies that combine the bra with anti-rape devices. The inevitable models are also the best-selling ones: the push-up bra with strategic padding to be used on very special occasions (chosen by 34% of women), the evergreen is always bra without underwire (perhaps in lace and in a triangle shape, almost a reference to that totemic piece by Mary Phelps Jacob) for everyday adventures, and in at least 3 out of 10 drawers there is the sports bra to effectively support the breasts during the gym & the like.

The daily mix & match with the briefs of each model (comfortable culottes, brazilian, thong or microtanga depending on how you get up in the morning) favors neutral and simple colors, but there are those who dare with fantasy and hide very varied combinations under the daily uniform. It is not surprising to read in the survey the overwhelming combination of fuchsia and red: all of us have succumbed to red sexy bra for the holidays and then we find it literally on the back ... it should be used, right?


and injections do not apply in these cases:

  • with high sensitivity to this antibiotic
  • to urticaria, pollinosis, bronchial asthma and other allergic manifestations
  • in patients with high sensitivity to sulfonamides, antibiotics and other drugs.

stages of the process of applying the patient must understand what penicillin is, and what side effects it can cause. In the treatment process, allergy symptoms sometimes appear. As a rule, such manifestations are associated with sensitization of the body due to the previous use of these drugs. It can also occur allergy due to prolonged use of the drug. The first use of drug allergy is observed less often. There is a possibility of fetal sensitization during pregnancy if a woman takes penicillin.

The following side effects may also develop during the course of treatment: System

  • digestive system: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, central nervous system
  • : neurotoxic reactions, meningism signs, coma, cramps.Allergy
  • : urticaria, fever, rashes on the skin and mucous membranes, eosinophilia, edema. Cases of anaphylactic shock and death were recorded. With such manifestations, it is necessary to enter immediately epinephrine intravenously. manifestations
  • associated with chemotherapeutic effects: oral candidiasis, vaginal candidiasis.


The pendulum clocks they are driven by a weight whose descent makes a roller rotate around which the rope supporting the weight is wound. The first clock of this type, at least the first to work with precision, was made in 1657 by the Dutch Christiaan Huygens.

The oscillation of a pendulum, in its coming and going, always takes exactly the same time. This was already discovered by Galileo, in 1583, thanks to the observation of a large chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, which was swinging hanging from the ceiling.

Galileo also understood that, if it were possible to connect the hands of a clock to a pendulum, a very precise instrument would be obtained, but he was unable to realize the mechanism he had devised.

Huygens, a Dutch physicist, resumed his studies of Galileo and eventually came to build a very complex mechanism with the weight pendulum, like the one illustrated here.

Birth of the computer

Babbage decided to build a machine that he nicknamed "Differential Machine" capable of doing complex mathematical calculations without using multiplication or division. However, it was only in 1832 that he managed to create a working prototype of this machine that was initially used for the manufacture of tables.

From that prototype, Babbage began building a new type of mechanical computer that could perform even more complex calculations, including multiplication and division. It can therefore be said that the first computer prototype was a huge machine with large gears. Of course, nothing that could even remotely resemble today's gaming PCs.

The basic parts of the first computers

The basic parts of the prototypes of the first computers had two distinctive features like in any other modern machine such as a central processing unit, or CPU and memory. Babbage, of course, did not use these terms and in fact called the CPU "mill" and the memory was known as "archive". In these early prototypes, there was already a device that could be defined as a "reader" to insert instructions.

They had a way to print the results generated by the machine on paper. This output device was therefore the forerunner of current inkjet and laser printers. It was only in 1991 that Babbage's ideas were translated into a working computer that was more than three meters long and two meters high.

In today's hyper-connected world, almost everyone has at least one social profile: Faceboock, Instagram, Twitter. There is really plenty of choice. But what will the first Social Network absolutely which, as the name suggests (literally translatable as "social network"), was able to to communicate and socialize between them more people?


There were several attempts before it came to social networks as we know them now. Before Facebook, there were already several similar sites, such as Myspace or Friendster or, back in 1997, SixDegrees, inspired by the theory according to which every person in the world would be connected to another medium six degrees of separation, that is you are acquaintances.

There first online chat usable to a large public was born even earlier: in 1980, in the USA. And even before that, in 1978, the BBS (Bulletin Board System): electronic bulletin boards, consisting of a computer capable of connecting multiple users through the telephone line and thus allowing them to exchange information, read news, chat, play. For many, the BBS are the first examples of social networks.


But there are those who go even further back in time: second Tom Standage, author of the book Cicero's tweets, the origin of social media would be in ancient Rome, in 51 BC, when Guide he became proconsul of Cilicia (today's Turkey).

In order to be updated on what was happening in Rome, he used the network used by the Roman elite to exchange information. The news circulated on papyrus scrolls: letters and documents were copied, shared, commented on and posted publicly on the city walls. Just like on the Facebook “wall”!

Video: Alexander Fleming Biography. Animated Video. Discovered the first True Antibiotic


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